The downstream sector commonly refers to the refining of petroleum crude oil and the processing and purifying of raw natural gas, as well as the marketing and distribution of products derived from crude oil and natural gas. The downstream sector touches consumers through products such as gasoline or petrol, kerozen, jet fuel, diesel oil, heating oil, fuel oils, lubricants, waxes, asphalt and natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as well as hundreds of other petrochemicals.
An oil (or petroleum) refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel and others already mentioned above. Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units.
Natural gas processing is a complex industrial process designed to clean raw natural gas by separating impurities and various non-methane hydrocarbons and fluids to produce what is known as pipeline quality dry natural gas.
Natural gas processing begins at the well head. The composition of the raw natural gas extracted from producing wells depends on the type, depth, and location of the underground deposit and the geology of the area. Oil and natural gas are often found together in the same reservoir. The natural gas produced from oil wells is generally classified as associated-dissolved, meaning that the natural gas is associated with or dissolved in crude oil. Natural gas production absent any association with crude oil is classified as “non-associated.” Most natural gas extracted from the Earth contains, to varying degrees, low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds; examples include methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). The natural gas extracted from coal reservoirs and mines (coalbed methane) is the primary exception, being essentially a mix of mostly methane and about 10 percent carbon dioxide (CO2).
The oil & gas industry faces numerous challenges. In Upstream, the search for economically accessible sources is demanding continually increasing investment. In Downstream, significant shifts in demand are expected going forward. Consequently, in most highly industrialized countries the usage of fossil fuels is increasingly regulated in favor of renewable alternatives such as sun, wind and hydropower.
Moreover, the opportunities in the emerging markets form an attractive growth proposition.
Based on this, EETI is able to reviewing and carry out studies on business models, developing sales channel strategies and dynamic pricing strategies which are becoming increasingly more important in order to get an edge in these highly competitive markets.
2. Retail Market
We know well that Retail marketing in today's oil industry is not only about fuels and lubes. Ever more discerning customers need a wider range of goods and services. Increasing competition is putting margins under pressure. The Institute works on issues you will like to learn on how to manage objectives and resources professionally. We may together explore the circumstances and problems affecting the retail oil industry and consider the solutions available to wholesalers and retailers. We plan to deal with fundamentals affecting supply, marketing and retailing of fuels and associated goods and services, and how technology can help secure success in the market place and especially the price of each product.
3. Petroleum Products
One resource, thousands of uses.
One resource, thousands of uses
The vast majority of the crude oil that goes through refineries leaves a range of products produced and is much wider than automotive fuels. In fact, these products touch almost every aspect of modern life and here -as a brief description for the reader- are listed a few of them:
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Together propane and butane are known as LPG, which is stored in metal containers under pressure as a liquid. It is used for heating and cooking, especially when portability is needed – in camping stoves, for example, or on boats.
Kerosene was the first major product to be refined from crude oil in the late 19th century. At that time it was mainly used for lighting in oil lamps. Today its main use is as jet aircraft fuel.
Without lubricants, the world might not stop spinning but everything on it would grind to a halt. Lubricants have thousands of uses, from fixing squeaky doors to oiling industrial machines and automotive engines.
Heavy fuel oils
These are used in large industrial boilers, in power stations for example, and to raise steam to drive turbines on ships.
This is the heaviest product from the refinery. Essentially it’s what is left after everything else has been removed from the crude oil. When heated, it can be used in road construction and as a waterproofing material for roofs.
Wax is a by-product of the refining process. It is used to make candles, electrical insulation and waterproof coverings for food cartons.
It is true that a range of petroleum products, under specific conditions, may cause serious environmental impacts. Many times in the storage tanks there is a variety of growing microbes which need special treatment. The Institute has already examined a series of treatments and keeps the necessary contacts to immediately attack such problems of industry.
Another category of oil products is the Petrochemicals industry. Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources sometimes, such as corn or sugar cane.
The two most common petrochemical classes are olefins (including ethylene and polypropylene) and aromatics (including benzene, toluene and xylene isomers). Oil refineries produce olefins and aromatics by fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions. Aromatics are produced by catalytic reforming of naphtha. Olefins and aromatics are the building blocks for a wide range of materials such as solvents, detergents, and adhesives. Olefins are the basis for polymers and oligomers used in plastics, resins, fibers, elastomers, lubricants, and gels.
EETI is in close collaboration with refineries, chemical industry, other affiliated institutes and Universities may undertake any specific study of this market.